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  1. #1
    Head Game Master Dunno's Avatar
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    PSA: Covid-19 AKA Coronavirus

    Greetings fellow Heroes-WoW community


    As everyone have already noticed, the world and its people are facing a great deal of challenges due to the outbreak of Covid-19(AKA Coronavirus). As a server who has a community of people from all around the world we want to reach out to all of them during these challenging times.

    Because of our community joining us from all parts of the world, we do not know what anyone is going through as the pandemic is in different stages in different parts of the world. Therefore, we ask each and every one of you to show kindness, love, compassion and empathy. These four words, kindness, love, compassion and empathy are very important at a time like this. We all come online to play a game we like, some of us to take a break from the real world and some just to have fun and these four words helps us keeping the game fun and enjoyable.

    It is fully understandable and reasonable to be frustrated, mad and even feel helpless at times like these but please do not take your anger out on others. We are all being affected by the same pandemic taking place worldwide and we all deal with it differently. So please show kindness and compassion to the players joining you in your raid, battleground or the person sitting next to you in mall and do not spread hatred. It is more important than ever that we do this as we do not know the other persons situation. We will not tolerate any jokes about the outbreak on our server. People are going through a hard time right now and it's very disrespectful towards them, the people infected, and the people who have died recently. This includes us not tolerating anyone naming their characters after the virus.

    We all have to do our part in keeping the world a better and safer place. Listen to what your government instructs and tells you to do. One thing that everyone should do no matter where in the world you live, if you can stay home, stay home. It is the most productive way to prevent any kind of infecting and this cannot be repeat enough. Stay home if you can stay home!

    On behalf of the whole Heroes-WoW staff team,
    Stay safe and stay kind to one another.

    For helpful tips and info please visit the following links!
    https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html
    https://www.youtube.com/user/CDCStreamingHealth




  2. #2
    Heroes WoW Member Dronon's Avatar
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    Love it. stay safe people, maybe eventually the walrus race will come out of hiding when this disease is over.

  3. #3
    Heroes WoW Member przedszkolak's Avatar
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    To all my Friends and Strangers.

    Eye-protection
    In all warnings about coronavirus causing SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19/20, eye protection is forgotten, coronavirus is as fast infectious through the eyeball as through othermucous membranes. Everyone can use ordinary glasses to significantly reduce the risk of infection. You can buy zeros glasses in virtually every store and the same wear zeros glasses with eye lenses.

    Masks
    If You don't have or can't get a mask, I will describe several ways to make it. Everyone practically at home has a Hepa filter (which is used in vacuum cleaners) or even thinner, e.g. from chemical filter paper (but in this case it will be difficult to breathe and for obvious reasons, the possibility of use is shortened). Just unfold such Hepa filter and put between two surgical masks, sew around with a zigzag stitch and the matter is done. If You do not have surgical masks, there may be a medical scarf or something similar, but do not forget about zigzag sewing. One week ago on Wednesday and Thursday I saw such masks worn in stores. When You have lack of masks or filters, You can restore the effectiveness of protection by using a UV source for disinfection (15 minutes on one side is must minimum) of these which You poses and use them few times. The maximum time of using surgical masks is one hour, but much better are masks with 99 filters, with viruses protection.

    Gloves
    Also, always outside or in shops or other public places use rubber gloves that you should wash after returning home or use ordinary rubber-nitril gloves once. Temperature of washing is minimum 60 digress (Celsius scale).

    Disinfection
    As disinfection liquid everyone can use denaturant or 95% spirit is the cheapest and the best. In Italy, Poland and some other European countries You can use some series of certificated chemicals against viruses (I do not want to advertise any product or producer. If someone want to know have to write priv.). During the influenza epidemic in 1918, in European hospitals used to disinfect iodine, but I think denaturant is much better.

    If this what I wrote, is interesting for You, I will describe next rules of conduct and ways of protection against infection.

    I recommend watching movies from Regio Emilia to understand that this is not a joke, anyone can get infected and get sick. I wish You All health, take care of Your Families and Friends, protect Yourselves and Your surroundings.
    Last edited by przedszkolak; 03-21-2020 at 03:05 AM.

  4. #4
    Heroes WoW Member Przed's Avatar
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    Solo per gli Italiani, in Lambardia sta iniziando a migliorare e c' speranza. Articolo tratto da Corriere dela Sera. https://www.corriere.it/cronache/20_...2eee59c6.shtml

  5. #5
    Quote Originally Posted by Przed View Post
    Solo per gli Italiani, in Lambardia sta iniziando a migliorare e c' speranza. Articolo tratto da Corriere dela Sera. https://www.corriere.it/cronache/20_...2eee59c6.shtml
    Coraggio e saluti da Malta

  6. #6
    Heroes WoW Member Przed's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Chrispee View Post
    Coraggio e saluti da Malta
    Thank You Very Much SIR B. from Malta.
    Last edited by Przed; 03-21-2020 at 04:15 PM.

  7. #7
    Heroes WoW Member Jazon321's Avatar
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    VentilAid open-source ventilator that can be made anywhere locally. Here is how to print your own ventilator. This is a very good, simple device that works and saves lives. An acquaintance Polish company made this available for free. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AAjVFM0t0o



    VentilAid - open source ventilator, that can be made anywhere locally Files names are in Polish - we will fix it and change to English untill 24-25th of March 2020.
    The parts required to assemble the VentilAid are divided into two groups:

    1. Printable parts
    2. Parts that are mass-produced worldwide

    As for the first group, the instructions are the following:

    • Print the bellow out of elastic material, for instance TPU. For best results please use material of hardness 80 in Shore A scale. When slicing, the best settings appear to be 1 loop with 0.6-0.7 extrusion width. Apply "Vase mode" whenever it is possible.
    • Other 3D printed parts should be sliced with following settings: 2 loops, approx. 15% infill density, layer height from 0.2 mm to 0.5 mm.

    The second group contains parts, which are ought to be purchased from local supplier. The list is available below:

    • Double acting pneumatic actuator with 16 mm piston and 100-200 mm stroke (the stroke length is responsible for "breath" capacity)
    • 12 V solenoid oneumatic valve with adjustable air outlet (mono- or bistable)
    • 12 V DC power supply - almost any kind will work
    • Standarized pneumatic pressure regulator with approx. 2 bar on the output.
    • Source of pneumatic pressure - Ventilaid should work even on compressors for hobbyists

    The check-valve and the pressure controller require a soft, elastic discs with hardness of approx. 40 Shore A (or less) and maximal thickness of 1mm - if the supply is low one can make on out of old bike tire tube.


    Last edited by Jazon321; 03-24-2020 at 12:14 PM.

  8. #8
    Heroes WoW Member przedszkolak's Avatar
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    As I have promised some information about chemical disinfectants. I know that in a lot of countries there is a lack of disinfectants, I have try to write the basic information what can be use for what purpose.

    If You will want to use one of these product
    read carefully producer instructions, because the effectiveness depends on product expiration date. In many countries these products have different names. You also have to read very carefully a composition of the combined products to know - if it contains the right active substances and in what percentage - to know if it will be effective. The easiest way is to ask the dealer, but I've never been able to get a satisfactory answer.

    I also wrote something about effectiveness against viruses. To tell the truth, there no to many scientific publications, which substance or product is the best for CORVID virus. All over the world all sanitary services have used below mentioned substances.


    You have to read governmental websites about their recommendations, especially sanitary services websites. As I have noticed in some countries there are blockades of information, if You have read this You know where You will find information (in other countries or states).

    If someone read this - give me feedback if information have been useful for You.


    To remember for readers
    ppm - parts per million - 0,0001% - 10−6
    Alcohol

    In the healthcare setting, “alcohol” refers to two water-soluble chemical compounds—ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol—that have generally underrated germicidal characteristics. FDA has not cleared any liquid chemical sterilant or high-level disinfectant with alcohol as the main active ingredient. These alcohols are rapidly bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic against vegetative forms of bacteria; they also are tuberculocidal, fungicidal, and virucidal but do not destroy bacterial spores. Their cidal activity drops sharply when diluted below 50% concentration, and the optimum bactericidal concentration is 60%–90% solutions in water (volume/volume).
    Ethyl alcohol, at concentrations of 60%–80%, is a potent virucidal agent inactivating all of the lipophilic viruses (e.g., herpes, vaccinia, and influenza virus) and many hydrophilic viruses (e.g., adenovirus, enterovirus, rhinovirus, and rotaviruses but not hepatitis A virus (HAV) or poliovirus). Isopropyl alcohol is not active against the nonlipid enteroviruses but is fully active against the lipid viruses. Studies also have demonstrated the ability of ethyl and isopropyl alcohol to inactivate the hepatitis B virus(HBV) and the herpes virus, and ethyl alcohol to inactivate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), rotavirus, echovirus, and astrovirus.

    Chlorine and Chlorine Compounds

    Hypochlorites, the most widely used of the chlorine disinfectants, are available as liquid (e.g., sodium hypochlorite) or solid (e.g., calcium hypochlorite). The most prevalent chlorine products in the United States are aqueous solutions of 5.25%–6.15% sodium hypochlorite, usually called household bleach. They have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, do not leave toxic residues, are unaffected by water hardness, are inexpensive and fast acting, remove dried or fixed organisms and biofilms from surfaces465, and have a low incidence of serious toxicity.
    “Superoxidized water” has been tested against bacteria, mycobacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Freshly generated superoxidized water is rapidly effective (<2 minutes) in achieving a 5-log reduction of pathogenic microorganisms (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. chelonae, poliovirus, HIV, multidrug-resistant S. aureus, E. coli, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, P. aeruginosa) in the absence of organic loading. However, the biocidal activity of this disinfectant decreased substantially in the presence of organic material (e.g., 5% horse serum). No bacteria or viruses were detected on artificially contaminated endoscopes after a 5-minute exposure to superoxidized water and HBV-DNA was not detected from any endoscope experimentally contaminated with HBV-positive mixed sera after a disinfectant exposure time of 7 minutes.
    Hypochlorites are widely used in healthcare facilities in a variety of settings. Inorganic chlorine solution is used for disinfecting tonometer heads and for spot-disinfection of countertops and floors. Full-strength bleach has been recommended for self-disinfection of needles and syringes used for illicit-drug injection when needle-exchange programs are not available. Other uses in healthcare include as an irrigating agent in endodontic treatment and as a disinfectant for manikins, laundry, dental appliances, hydrotherapy tanks, regulated medical waste before disposal, and the water distribution system in hemodialysis centers and hemodialysis machines.

    Formaldehyde

    Formaldehyde is used as a disinfectant and sterilant in both its liquid and gaseous countries/states. Liquid formaldehyde will be considered briefly in this section, and the gaseous form is reviewed elsewhere. Formaldehyde is sold and used principally as a water-based solution called formalin, which is 37% formaldehyde by weight. The aqueous solution is a bactericide, tuberculocide, fungicide, virucide and sporicide. OSHA indicated that formaldehyde should be handled in the workplace as a potential carcinogen. Ingestion of formaldehyde can be fatal, and long-term exposure to low levels in the air or on the skin can cause asthma-like respiratory problems and skin irritation, such as dermatitis and itching.
    Varying concentrations of aqueous formaldehyde solutions destroy a wide range of microorganisms. Inactivation of poliovirus in 10 minutes required an 8% concentration of formalin, but all other viruses tested were inactivated with 2% formalin.
    Although formaldehyde-alcohol is a chemical sterilant and formaldehyde is a high-level disinfectant, the health-care uses of formaldehyde are limited by its irritating fumes and its pungent odor even at very low levels. For these reasons and others—such as its role as a suspected human carcinogen linked to nasal cancer and lung cancer. Formaldehyde is used in the health-care setting to prepare viral vaccines (e.g., poliovirus and influenza); as an embalming agent; and to preserve anatomic specimens; and historically has been used to sterilize surgical instruments, especially when mixed with ethanol.
    Paraformaldehyde, a solid polymer of formaldehyde, can be vaporized by heat for the gaseous decontamination of laminar flow biologic safety cabinets when maintenance work or filter changes require access to the sealed portion of the cabinet.

    Glutaraldehyde

    Glutaraldehyde is a saturated dialdehyde that has gained wide acceptance as a high-level disinfectant and chemical sterilant. Aqueous solutions of glutaraldehyde are acidic and generally in this state are not sporicidal. Only when the solution is “activated” (made alkaline) by use of alkalinating agents to pH 7.5–8.5 does the solution become sporicidal.
    The in vitro inactivation of microorganisms by glutaraldehydes has been extensively investigated and reviewed. Several investigators showed that ≥2% aqueous solutions of glutaraldehyde, buffered to pH 7.5–8.5 with sodium bicarbonate effectively killed viruses in <10 minutes.
    Glutaraldehyde is used most commonly as a high-level disinfectant for medical equipment such as endoscopes, spirometry tubing, dialyzers, transducers, anesthesia and respiratory therapy equipment, hemodialysis proportioning and dialysate delivery systems and reuse of laparoscopic disposable plastic trocars. Glutaraldehyde is noncorrosive to metal and does not damage lensed instruments, rubber or plastics. Glutaraldehyde should not be used for cleaning noncritical surfaces because it is too toxic and expensive.

    Hydrogen Peroxide

    The literature contains several accounts of the properties, germicidal effectiveness, and potential uses for stabilized hydrogen peroxide in the health-care setting. Published reports ascribe good germicidal activity to hydrogen peroxide and attest to its bactericidal, virucidal, sporicidal, and fungicidal properties
    Hydrogen peroxide works by producing destructive hydroxyl free radicals that can attack membrane lipids, DNA, and other essential cell components. Catalase, produced by aerobic organisms and facultative anaerobes that possess cytochrome systems, can protect cells from metabolically produced hydrogen peroxide by degrading hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This defense is overwhelmed by the concentrations used for disinfection.
    Hydrogen peroxide is active against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, viruses, and spores. Studies demonstrated the antiviral activity of hydrogen peroxide against rhinovirus. The time required for inactivating three serotypes of rhinovirus using a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution was 6–8 minutes; this time increased with decreasing concentrations (18-20 minutes at 1.5%, 50–60 minutes at 0.75%).
    Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide from 6% to 25% show promise as chemical sterilants. Thirty minutes were required for >99.9% inactivation of poliovirus and HAV.
    Under normal conditions, hydrogen peroxide is extremely stable when properly stored (e.g., in dark containers). The decomposition or loss of potency in small containers is less than 2% per year at ambient temperatures.
    Commercially available 3% hydrogen peroxide is a stable and effective disinfectant when used on inanimate surfaces. It has been used in concentrations from 3% to 6% for disinfecting soft contact lenses (e.g., 3% for 2–3 hrs), tonometer biprisms, ventilators, fabrics, and endoscopes. Hydrogen peroxide was effective in spot-disinfecting fabrics in patients’ rooms.

    Iodophors

    Iodine solutions or tinctures long have been used by health professionals primarily as antiseptics on skin or tissue. Iodophors, on the other hand, have been used both as antiseptics and disinfectants. An iodophor is a combination of iodine and a solubilizing agent or carrier; the resulting complex provides a sustained-release reservoir of iodine and releases small amounts of free iodine in aqueous solution. The best-known and most widely used iodophor is povidone-iodine, a compound of polyvinylpyrrolidone with iodine. This product and other iodophors retain the germicidal efficacy of iodine but unlike iodine generally are nonstaining and relatively free of toxicity and irritancy.
    Iodine can penetrate the cell wall of microorganisms quickly, and the lethal effects are believed to result from disruption of protein and nucleic acid structure and synthesis.
    Published reports on the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of iodophors demonstrate that iodophors are bactericidal, mycobactericidal, and virucidal but can require prolonged contact times to kill certain fungi and bacterial spores. The virucidal activity of 75–150 ppm available iodine was demonstrated against viruses. Manufacturers’ data demonstrate that commercial iodophors are not sporicidal, but they are tuberculocidal, fungicidal, virucidal, and bactericidal at their recommended use-dilution.
    Besides their use as an antiseptic, iodophors have been used for disinfecting blood culture bottles and medical equipment, such as hydrotherapy tanks, thermometers, and endoscopes. Antiseptic iodophors are not suitable for use as hard-surface disinfectants because of concentration differences. Iodophors formulated as antiseptics contain less free iodine than do those formulated as disinfectants. Iodine or iodine-based antiseptics should not be used on silicone catheters because they can adversely affect the silicone tubing.

    Peracetic Acid

    Peracetic, or peroxyacetic, acid is characterized by rapid action against all microorganisms. Special advantages of peracetic acid are that it lacks harmful decomposition products (i.e., acetic acid, water, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide), enhances removal of organic material, and leaves no residue. It remains effective in the presence of organic matter and is sporicidal even at low temperatures. Peracetic acid can corrode copper, brass, bronze, plain steel, and galvanized iron but these effects can be reduced by additives and pH modifications. It is considered unstable, particularly when diluted; for example, a 1% solution loses half its strength through hydrolysis in 6 days, whereas 40% peracetic acid loses 1%–2% of its active ingredients per month.
    It is little known about the mechanism of action of peracetic acid, but it is believed to function similarly to other oxidizing agents—that is, it denatures proteins, disrupts the cell wall permeability, and oxidizes sulfhydryl and sulfur bonds in proteins, enzymes, and other metabolites.
    For viruses, the dosage range is wide (12–2250 ppm), with poliovirus inactivated in yeast extract in 15 minutes with 1,500–2,250 ppm. In one study, 3.5% peracetic acid was ineffective against HAV after 1-minute exposure using a carrier test.
    Peracetic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide
    Two chemical sterilants are available that contain peracetic acid plus hydrogen peroxide (i.e., 0.08% peracetic acid plus 1.0% hydrogen peroxide [no longer marketed]; and 0.23% peracetic acid plus 7.35% hydrogen peroxide.

    Phenolics

    Phenol has occupied a prominent place in the field of hospital disinfection since its initial use as a germicide by Lister in his pioneering work on antiseptic surgery. In the past 30 years, however, work has concentrated on the numerous phenol derivatives or phenolics and their antimicrobial properties.
    One study demonstrated little or no virucidal effect of a phenolic against coxsackie B4, echovirus 11, and poliovirus 1. Similarly, 12% ortho-phenylphenol failed to inactivate any of the three hydrophilic viruses after a 10-minute exposure time, although 5% phenol was lethal for these viruses. A 0.5% dilution of a phenolic (2.8% ortho-phenylphenol and 2.7% ortho-benzyl-para-chlorophenol) inactivated HIV and a 2% solution of a phenolic (15% ortho-phenylphenol and 6.3% para-tertiary-amylphenol) inactivated all but one of 11 fungi tested.
    Manufacturers’ data using the standardized AOAC methods demonstrate that commercial phenolics are not sporicidal but are tuberculocidal, fungicidal, virucidal, and bactericidal at their recommended use-dilution. However, results from these same studies have varied dramatically among laboratories testing identical products.
    Many phenolic germicides are EPA-registered as disinfectants for use on environmental surfaces (e.g., bedside tables, bedrails, and laboratory surfaces) and noncritical medical devices.

    Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    The quaternary ammonium compounds are widely used as disinfectants. Health-care–associated infections have been reported from contaminated quaternary ammonium compounds used to disinfect patient-care supplies or equipment, such as cystoscopes or cardiac catheters.
    Results from manufacturers’ data sheets and from published scientific literature indicate that the quaternaries sold as hospital disinfectants are generally fungicidal, bactericidal, and virucidal against lipophilic (enveloped) viruses; they are not sporicidal and generally not tuberculocidal or virucidal against hydrophilic (nonenveloped) viruses.

    - - - Updated - - -

    Buy the denature, pass through the filter paper (a similar effect will give a few handkerchiefs). Make some gruel with potato starch. 10% gruel and 90% purified denatured liquid. The fluid exceeds the highest standards for antiviral agents. It is known not to touch the face, etc., but it is obvious. Disinfectant liquid much cheaper than what is on the market, price 2-3 $ per liter.

    - - - Updated - - -

    Very important information !!!

    My dear, if you live in countries where the drastic restrictions associated with COVID19 have not yet been introduced - schools, universities have not been closed, public transport has not been limited etc. or you are in places where there is seclusion, quarantine or you find that you could have been near an infected person, for example in Great Britain, USA.


    When you get home all outer clothing (including gloves - if they were not disposable) you must wash in detergents with the addition of gray soap, Marseille soap or special detergents with antivirus components. If it is possible to wash at a temperature above 60 degrees Celsius for a minimum of 10 minutes. If possible, add bleach or hydrogen peroxide to the washing. Of course the temperatures and means used depend on what is contained in the washing instructions.

    Last edited by przedszkolak; 03-30-2020 at 02:27 AM.

  9. #9
    Heroes WoW Member Jazon321's Avatar
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    As I have noticed we have a lot of players from European counties and both Americas. COVID19 has big influence for all world population. Some of us have been ill or some of us are carriers of the SARS CoV2 virus. I hope that the bad effects of infection will bypass us all. Recent press and government reports show that more and more young people have carrier status or getting COVID19.
    It turned out that thinking that there would be population resistance turned out to be very illusory, so thought among others in the Netherlands, Sweden, Great Britain and the USA. I do not criticize any government here, it is only a matter of conscience and responsibility towards their own societies - people who made such decisions effects.

    The only action protecting us is the lack of contact with the virus. If possible, try not to leave the houses.

    If you have to leave the house, use protective equipment, minimum is:
    1. mask
    2. glasses
    3. gloves
    4. baseball caps.

    Try to keep a minimum distance of 2 meters from other people.


    Avoid surfaces and spaces enclosed.

    After returning home, you can even wash all your outer clothing, according to above przedszkolak's advises.

    I wish one of the members of the HEROES-WoW team and his family to recover. I hope everything ends well.

    Greetings to the whole HEROES-WOW staff and community !!!!!!

  10. #10
    Heroes WoW Member przedszkolak's Avatar
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    Now you can hear and feel the money. Yes, I promised that I would come to the ones who prepared this fate for us. I wrote earlier that I would find out who constructed it, now you just need to track who paid for it, this is what young people from DN.
    Below is a list of authors of research on SARS and its mutations - publication from the end of 2015. You have a link to this publication. Worth reading the whole thing. SARS-type viruses are very widespread among animals, but none of them attack those organs that are attacked at humans.
    I recommend checking the dates, and that would be enough. All work is a little more interesting, and there is something to read. The Americans and the Chinese prepared this fate for us.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26552008
    Nat Med. 2015 Dec;21(12):1508-13. doi: 10.1038/nm.3985. Epub 2015 Nov 9.
    A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence.
    Menachery VD1, Yount BL Jr1, Debbink K1,2, Agnihothram S3, Gralinski LE1, Plante JA1, Graham RL1, Scobey T1, Ge XY4, Donaldson EF1, Randell SH5,6, Lanzavecchia A7, Marasco WA8,9, Shi ZL4, Baric RS1,2.
    Author information
    1 Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    3 National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, USA.
    4 Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    5 Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    6 Cystic Fibrosis Center, Marsico Lung Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    7 Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona Institute of Microbiology, Zurich, Switzerland.
    8 Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    9 Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Corrigendum: A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence. [Nat Med. 2016]
    Abstract
    The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV underscores the threat of cross-species transmission events leading to outbreaks in humans. Here we examine the disease potential of a SARS-like virus, SHC014-CoV, which is currently circulating in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. Using the SARS-CoV reverse genetics system, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV backbone. The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild-type backbone can efficiently use multiple orthologs of the SARS receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate replication of the chimeric virus in mouse lung with notable pathogenesis. Evaluation of available SARS-based immune-therapeutic and prophylactic modalities revealed poor efficacy; both monoclonal antibody and vaccine approaches failed to neutralize and protect from infection with CoVs using the novel spike protein. On the basis of these findings, we synthetically re-derived an infectious full-length SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Our work suggests a potential risk of SARS-CoV re-emergence from viruses currently circulating in bat populations.

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